Banking 101: The Bank And How It Operates


If you’re working in the banking sector, you must have dreamed of dealing with the ups at Wall Street where it’s common to hear about exposure to subprime borrowers. These are individuals who have taken loans but are not able to pay simply because they couldn’t afford to do so. They may have purchased a very expensive house, and they used an adjustable-rate mortgage. Maybe they had a negative amortization, which happens when their loan principal balance is still continuously increasing even though they’re paying their monthly loan payment.

How Do Banks Operate?


Banks receive deposits from clients or depositors that create savings accounts, checking accounts, deposit certificates, and more. The bank can lend these funds to other clients who apply for personal or business loans, mortgages, and other plans they may have.

Interest expense is the money that the bank gives to the depositor, while the resultant interest that it makes on the loans made by the depositor is called the interest income. The difference between these two is referred to as the net interest income. Years ago, banks were primarily reliant on the interest income to produce profit for future bank expansions as well as for the bank owners as well. However, the modern banks now have a combined setup that enables them to produce 50% more of their profits from the bank fees, like bank trust sectors, mutual funds, credit card handling, merchant payments, and more – almost any fee that you can think of, they can get profit from.

When a loan has been instigated officially on the books, the money is then paid out to the borrower, and an asset is then established. What the bank will do next is that it will create a company-wide reserve on the bank’s list of loans to determine the losses. If they decide, for instance, that 1% of the loans will go wrong, they will create an accounting reserve that decreases the value of the borrower’s loan on the balance sheet. If, in the long run, the loan does go bad, the reported earnings won’t be damaged as they already have a buffer on the sheet to counter the loss.

Importance Of Sufficient Reserves

An adequate amount of accounting reserves are crucial to the bank’s health and productivity. If, for instance, the 1% loss becomes 4%, the shareholders would be distressed, as they had only anticipated a 1% loss. There will be large amounts of income statement losses. Different economic situations can cause bank investors to be anxious and stressed, particularly situations in the housing market. If there are few home sales, this means that less fee income is coming in. But some large-scale investors like Warren Buffett still invest in shares in certain banks.

Is It All About Bank Stocks?


Stocks are among the vital foundations of the bank, but ultimately a good stock is dependent on the quality of the loans in the bank’s list. Most investors agree that it is hard to recruit people who can produce earnings with the wave of the hand when the market is great, and loans look pretty good.

The possibility for you to get better returns when you invest in bank stocks can be improved if your stock is placed in a tax-advantaged account like a traditional IRA or Roth IRA. If you still don’t understand bank procedures or where to even begin, then you can compare the losses in other banks. If something’s out of line, then that should worry you.




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